A complex adaptive system (CAS) is a concept where perfectly understanding the individual parts of a system doesn’t necessarily mean you fully understand the whole system.
This is because each individual part is an independent entity that plays a role in the system. But it also keeps learning and changing based on changes in its surrounding environment. You can’t make predictions about the whole system by just observing some of its parts.
Moreover, each part in a CAS is itself a CAS. So, the world comprises of many forests, and each forest is made up of many different trees, and so on. The study of CAS plays a critical
part in understanding the challenges of cloud-native application development.